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Accumulator

Accumulators are rechargeable, electro-chemical batteries, which stores the energy produced by photovoltaic plants. The power is stored as direct current in meanwhile more environment-friendly nickel metal hydride or nickel hydride accumulators. Purpose it is, to be independent from weather conditions or the night to with using solar plants.

Antireflection coating

So that the solar cells reflect the light as little as possible, on the surfaces of cell is an antireflection coating made of silicon nitrite. The increase of the efficiency of a solar module rises thereby substantially because more lights can be absorbed.

 

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C

Citizen solar power plant

Just if the own roofs are unsuitable for photovoltaic plants, it is meaningful to take part within a citizen group in a together operated solar plant. By the union it is possible for each particular, to obtain smaller costs by higher purchase quantities.

 

D

Data logger

Data loggers are an important instrument of the process monitoring. The yield data and values of the inverters are noted and stored. It is possible, to prepare and check regularly all data also over an internet portal.

Degradation

The degradation designates the aging of solar modules, by which they lose their efficiency. The aging is dependently from the kind of the solar cells. Poly and mono crystalline solar cells age here slowly however constantly, as soon as they are exposed to the sunlight. By measurements and tests on our photovoltaic modules we can give higher performance warranties than the regular average warranties.

 

E

Efficiency / Module efficiency / Cell efficiency

The efficiency, indicated in %, describes the transformation of the usable made current energy in relation to the irradiation energy of the sun (solar power), which a solar cell, a solar module or collector obtains. The efficiency is higher, if more power will be produced in the cell during the same sun exposure.

Energy return time / Energetic amortisation

The energy return time or energetic amortization describes the time, which must run a power producing plant, in order to return the energetic manufacture costs. Although here 3 to 4 years with photovoltaic plants sounds like a long time, they are substantially smaller with the emission-afflicted plants and atomic power plants and in addition substantially cleaner. If a plant paid the manufacture expenditure off, it is called a positive energy balance.

 

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H

Hot spots / Hot spot effect

Hot spots develop in a solar module, if one solar cell produces not or less power by contamination or shading. The solar cell is impaired then in its performance, and changed increased into warmth the taken up energy. By flowing produced current of other cells, the cell can destroy itself thereby. Modules are produced with anti parallel bypass diodes to protection, and the current will be directed around this shadowed cell.

 

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Inverter

The direct current produced with photovoltaic plants cannot be used by the mass of the consumers, because everything that is operated with electrical power needs alternating current. The inverter converts the direct current into alternating current.

Island systems / Stand alone systems

Photovoltaic plants call stand alone systems, which are not connected to the public electricity grid. The produced power is stored in accumulators as direct current. This kind of the photovoltaic plants is suitable for the power supply of unexplored or from electricity grid cut off regions (mountains, rural areas, developing countries). In developing countries the influence of the photovoltaic plants grows, since the power supply can be guaranteed, without waiting for the development of electricity grid and the infrastructure.

 

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M

Mono crystalline

The silicon is prepared in mono crystalline cells in such a way that its atoms form a homogeneous crystal lattice. In production the silicon is “pulled" from the melt and it cooled down purposefully.

Multi crystalline / Poly crystalline

Multi crystalline cells develop, if the raw material silicon is melted and poured into cuboid blocks. The atoms are amorphously, in not aligned form.

 

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P


Payback period / Amortisation

The payback period describes the time, within which a solar plant counts itself financially and energetic. Depending from the fit-in tariff, the energy yield and way of financing custom it a certain time, in order to pay back the capital, until one can gain financial success from the operation of a photovoltaic plant.

Photovoltaic

In the photovoltaic the solar power converts directly into electricity in the solar cells of a module. This procedure is emission-free. The produced electricity can be stored in accumulators or fed into electricity grid. Although the production of solar plants is more expensive in Germany, it is often not calculated, that many other ways of the electricity production have substantially higher follow-up costs. Because solar modules produce direct current, but the household and the majority of the energy consumers are dependent on alternating current, so the produced direct current must be converted by means of inverters into alternating current. The photovoltaic in Germany is a lucrative alternative for the consumer to the power supplier, emission-afflicted energy production and also a good way, in order to reduce the net load, by decentralizing of the electricity production.

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R

Roof-in mounting

By the mounting of solar modules on roofs there are two different systems, roof-top and roof-in mounting. Modules integrated into the roof looks like an esthetic / optical advantage against standard roof -top mountings, however the installation costs are higher and should be already planed into costs with the building of houses. The efficiency of these solar modules is smaller, for lack of backing ventilation, and if not correct consideration become with the building of houses estimated on approximately -5%.

 

S

Shadowing effect

Shadowing effect describes shade throw of surrounding buildings, trees and surrounding conditions on the photovoltaic modules. By the shadowing of modules, the modules lose power and the yield is reduced. If someone wants to purchase a photovoltaic plant, he should take attention whether shade can fall on the roof or the facade at some times of day.

Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol SI. It is a metalloid, thus a material with metallic and non-metallic characteristics. After oxygen, it is the direct secondary most frequent element on earth. In the form of dioxides it exists in form of many minerals, begun from sand, quartz up to half jewels.

Silicon is grey-black in the color and has mostly a metallic gloss. For the processing to solar cells silicon must be cleaned several times so that the purity is more than 99,999%, in order to be able to use it effectively.

Solar cell / photovoltaic cell / cell

The solar cell is the smallest element in a solar module. The raw materials are semiconductor materials for the production of the cells, such as silicon, germanium or gallium arsenide, whereby silicon cells are widespread. The sunlight is converted in the cells by the photoelectric effect. With the supply of light in the cells are separated positive and negative charge carriers from each other and electrical field and voltage are developed. A consumer will be attached to relieve this voltage and there flows direct current. So that the developed direct current can be used, inverters must be attached, which convert the direct current into alternating current.

Solar energy

Solar energy (or also solar power) is the energy produced by the sun, physically considered, that meets on earth in the form of electro- magnetic radiation.
Depend from influences of weather and environment, like also degree of latitude, this energy is converted in the atmosphere proportionately into warmth or meets as light on earth.

The energy quantity, which meets on earth, is altogether about 5000 times larger than the total requirement of mankind at energy. To use these energies for itself, there are two procedures, photovoltaic and solar thermal energy. The heat energy of the sun is used in solar thermal power stations, this is however economical only in sun-rich regions, than this procedure is complex in the operating and maintenance costs.

In the photovoltaic the solar power converts directly into electricity in the solar cells of a module. This procedure is emission-free. The produced electricity can be stored in accumulators or fed into electricity grid.

Solar module / Photovoltaic module / Module

The solar module consists of several solar cells switched into row, which are connected one another with ribbon. The strings are placed on weather-firm foil and are covered to protection with glass on that the sunny side. To give the solar module firmness, it is mounted mostly in an aluminum frame. Photovoltaic plant calls itself then the whole of the locally mounted photovoltaic modules.

Solar plant / photovoltaic plant

The “local whole” of solar modules is called solar plant. The solar plant can be connected to the electricity grid - large power companies operate whole solar parks - the private consumer cannot produce its internal requirement only, but also feed into electricity grid and make it available for other citizens. The feed in will be paid (fed in tariff), so that profit can be obtained at expiration of the amortization period thereby. Feed in counters can be rented with the local power companies against a small annual fee.

String

The solar cells switched with ribbon in a row, call themselves string.

 

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